Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Portable Appliance Testing (PAT) is an important part of a companys' responsibility to health and safety. This is done using a series of specialised testing procedures on your electrical appliances.
It is a statutory requirement and many insurance companies require the insured to comply with all current regulations. This includes the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989, which state that "As may be necessary to prevent danger, all systems shall be maintained so as to prevent, so far as reasonably practicable, such danger" (Regulation 4(2)). "Electrical equipment includes anything used, intended to be used or installed for use, to generate, provide, transmit, transform, rectify, convert, conduct, distribute, control, store, measure or use electrical energy." (Regulation 2(1)).
The responsibility on the employer to ensure work equipment is safe is also covered by The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998. This states that "Every employer shall ensure that work equipment is so constructed or adapted as to be suitable for the purpose for which it is used or provided." (Regulation 4(1)). This includes all work equipment (fixed, portable or transportable) connected to a source of electrical energy."
We start with a visual inspection checking for:
Damaged plugs and equipment (overheating, burn marks, discolouration)
Correctly wired plugs
Correctly rated fuse
Then a series of tests (depending on the class of equipment), they may include:
Earth continuity testing
Earth leakage test
Basically, any type of equipment, which is powered by electrical energy.
The IET Code of Practice for In-Service Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment states that this Code of Practice covers:
An appliance of less than 18 kg in mass that is intended to be moved while in operation or an appliance which can easily be moved from one place to another, e.g. toaster, food mixer, vacuum cleaner, fan heater.
Movable Equipment (sometimes called Transportable):
This is equipment, which is either: 18 kg or less in mass and not fixed, e.g. electric fire, or equipment with wheels, castors or other means to facilitate movement by the operator as required to perform its intended use, e.g. air conditioning unit.
This is portable equipment intended to be held in the hand during normal use, e.g. hair dryer, drill, soldering iron
Stationary Equipment or Appliances:
This equipment has a mass exceeding 18 kg and is not provided with a carrying handle, e.g. refrigerator, washing machine.
This is equipment of an appliance, which is fastened to a support or otherwise secured in a specified location, e.g. bathroom heater, towel rail.
Appliances/Equipment for Building in:
This equipment is intended to be installed in a prepared recess such as a cupboard or similar. In general, equipment for building in does not have an enclosure on all sides because on one or more of the sides, additional protection against electric shock is provided by the surroundings e.g. a built-in electric cooker.
Information Technology Equipment (Business Equipment):
Information technology equipment includes electrical business equipment such as computer and mains powered telecommunications equipment, and other equipment for general business use, such as mail processing machines, electric plotters, trimmers, VDUs, data terminal equipment, typewriters, telephones, printers, photo-copiers, power packs.
The use of extension leads should be avoided where possible. If used, they should be tested as portable appliances. It is recommended that 3-core leads (including a protective earthing conductor) be used.
A standard 13 A 3-pin extension socket-outlet with a 2-core cable should never be used even if the appliance to be used in Class II, as it would not provide protection against electrical shock if used at any time with an item of Class I equipment.
The length of an extension lead for general use should not exceed the following:
- Core Area Maximum Length
- 1.25mm2 12 metres
- 1.5mm2 15 metres
- 2.5mm2 25 metres*
- 2.5mm2 cables are too large for standard 13 A plugs, but they may be used with BS EN 60309 industrial plugs.
These maximum lengths are not applicable to the flex of an appliance, for guidance refer to paragraph 15.13 (IEE Code of Practice for In-Service Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment).
If extension lead lengths do exceed the above, they shall be protected by a 30 mA RCD manufactured to BS 7071.
Frequency of testing depends on the type of equipment and the environment in which it is used. The frequencies we recommend are based on the guidelines by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE), Institution of Engineering & Technology (IET) and our own experience.
Although you may believe that purchasing your own Portable Appliance Test instrument and having in-house staff carry out the portable appliance testing may be more cost effective, there are several factors to bear in mind. Firstly, you would need to ensure that the requirement of competence is met, which will undoubtedly involve expenditure in training. Secondly, you need to purchase the equipment and the software, and gain the expertise in its use. We find that many companies who have tried to carry out testing in-house also take more time to do the electrical testing as the staff generally only do this as part of their job, and do not have the experience to minimise the disruption factor in shutting down equipment. There may also be a tendency to "pass" appliances that may present a potential hazard, as it would mean taking the appliance out of commission.
All of our test engineers are trained to meet the current recommendations. This is our core business and we firmly believe that we can carry out the Portable Appliance Testing at your premises in the most cost-effective manner.
This is dependant on access and availability of the items. We use the latest technology test equipment so our experience and unique systems minimise the disruption to you and your staff.
We have a lot of electrical equipment. Does this mean that we get reams of worthless paper that takes ages to manage?
No,because of the testers we use you get computerised reports limiting paperwork which is presented in managable folders and straight foward certificates that meet Health and Safety standards.
A donation of 5p will be made to the Keech for every appliance tested.